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The Faculty of Architecture, Computing & Humanities
UNIVERSITY of GREENWICH


PEDESTRIAN AND EVACUATION DYNAMICS 2003

 PROCEEDINGS OF THE 2nd INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON PEDESTRIAN AND EVACUATION DYNAMICS

GREENWICH, UK 20-22 AUGUST 2003

  

Edited by

 

Edwin R. Galea

Director Fire Safety Engineering Group

University of Greenwich

London, UK

 

 


 

PREFACE

 

 

The world is changing.  From shopping malls to transport terminals, aircraft to passenger ships, the infrastructure of society is having to cope with ever more intense and complex flows of people.  Today, more than ever, safety, efficiency and comfort are issues that must be addressed by all designers. The World Trade Centre disaster brought into tragic focus the need for well-designed evacuation systems.  The new regulatory framework (MSC/Circ 1033), in the marine industry, acknowledges not only the importance of ensuring that the built environment is safe, but also the central role that evacuation simulation can play in achieving this. 

 

An additional need is to design spaces for efficiency – ensuring that maximum throughput can be achieved during normal operations – and comfort – ensuring that the resulting flows offer little opportunity for needless queuing or excessive congestion.  These complex demands challenge traditional prescriptive design guides and regulations. Designers and regulators are consequently turning to performance-based analysis and regulations facilitated by the new generation of people movement models.

 

The evolution of these models reflects our appreciation and understanding of the central role human behaviour has on pedestrian and evacuation dynamics.  In this context, human behaviour has grown to encompass, not simply the movement mechanics of people, but also the factors that motivate us to move, shape the strategies we develop to move through complex environments, or influence our ability to cope with a rapidly changing environment and to expedite egress.  These factors can be shaped by sociological, psychological and physiological influences.  Clearly then, an understanding of human behaviour is key to both the development of pedestrian and evacuation simulation models and the meaningful application of those tools to shape the modern world.  

 

With our increasing appreciation and knowledge of the central role that human behaviour has on pedestrian and evacuation dynamics, these models have evolved over the past 20 years, from the first generation ‘hydraulic’ models –  which treated thinking humans as a fluid flowing through pipes – and second generation ‘ball-bearing’ models – in which individual mindless automata bounced around the confines of the geometry – to the current generation of behavioural models with adaptive capabilities.  As witnessed by the range of complex human behaviour represented in the models described within the pages of this book, today’s pedestrian and evacuation models attempt to represent realistic human behaviour as diverse as reaction to smoke, individual structural knowledge, reaction to communication, reaction to signage, affiliative behaviour, occupant motivation, and queue recommitment behaviour.  A recent survey conducted by the Fire Safety Engineering Group (FSEG) of the University of Greenwich suggests that over 40 different evacuation models for aircraft, buildings, trains and ships are currently used by engineers worldwide and many more are in various stages of development.  Of these, no fewer than 20 different pedestrian and evacuation models were described by their developers and users at the conference.

 

But while many advances have been made in the development of pedestrian and evacuation models over the past 20 years, there is still much to be achieved.  As the behavioural capabilities of our models increase – driven by the need to satisfy the increasingly sophisticated demands made by design engineers and enforcement agencies – we find our fundamental understanding of the sociological and psychological components of pedestrian and evacuation behaviour is left wanting.  Much fundamental human performance data under both emergency and non-emergency conditions is yet to be collected.  In many cases, this lack of fundamental data leads model developers to ‘smooth over the cracks’ with a variety of assumptions, primarily based on ‘expert opinion’.  Even the fundamental algorithms we use to simulate the movement and behaviour of people are being re-examined in order to achieve greater computational efficiencies. 

 

But for all the challenges, modelling capabilities continue to advance at phenomenal speed.  Even three years ago it may have been considered a challenge to perform a design analysis involving the evacuation of 30,000 people from a 110 story building, but with today’s sophisticated modelling tools and high-end PCs, this is now possible.  Today’s challenges are much more ambitious and involve simulating the movement and behaviour of over one million people in city-sized geometries. 

 

This conference brought together over 80 researchers, design engineers and regulators from 12 countries to address these and other issues.  The 34 papers presented cover a variety of topics including:

 

-         The modelling of pedestrian dynamics and its applications.

-        Building evacuation model development, validation, application and the regulatory environment.

-         Marine evacuation model development, validation, application and the regulatory environment.

-         Data collection relating to human performance in emergency and non-emergency situations.

 

As such, the conference represents a unique opportunity for experts and beginners, model developers and model users, regulators and design engineers, to gain insight into the rapidly changing world of computer simulation of evacuation and circulation dynamics.

 

I would like to acknowledge the support of the following organisations for their generous contributions: our main sponsors, Lloyd’s Register and the University of Greenwich; and our other sponsors, Space Syntax, the Institution of Fire Engineers, the Institute of Mathematics and its Applications and the International Association of Fire Safety Science. 

 

Finally, I would like to thank everyone who has helped make this conference a reality and a success: Professor Michael Schreckenberg of Universitδt Duisburg-Essen, Duisburg, who was the organiser of the first conference and who provided valuable advice; my personal secretary and conference secretary, Mrs Franηoise Barkshire, whose formidable organisational skills and personal calm were of great reassurance to me; the programme committee, who assisted me in refereeing the papers - my FSEG colleagues, Dr Peter Lawrence and Dr Steve Gwynne; Dr Wendy Saunders, Dept of Psychology, Victoria University, Australia and Professor Michael Schreckenberg – and last but by no means least, the staff and research students of FSEG and the technical staff of the School of Computing and Mathematical Sciences of the University of Greenwich, who made certain that everything ran smoothly over the three days of the conference.

 

Greenwich, August 2003

Professor Ed Galea
Director Fire Safety Engineering Group
University of Greenwich

 

 

 

 

 

 

CONTENTS

 

 

Preface ………………………………………………………………..  iv

 

Session 1: Pedestrian Dynamics

Keynote speaker

Vision, Configuration and Simulation of Static Interaction for Design …… 1

A Penn

 

The Social Force Pedestrian Model Applied to Real Life Scenarios ………  17

T Werner, D Helbing

 

Numerical Simulation of Pedestrian Flow at High Densities ……………..  27

Y Tsuji

 

Simulating the Interaction of Pedestrians with Wayfinding Systems ……… 39

L Filippidis, S Gwynne, E R Galea, P Lawrence

 

Role of Conflicts in the Floor Field Cellular Automaton Model for

Pedestrian Dynamics …………………………………………………...  51

A Kirchner, A Namazi, K Nishinari, A Schadschneider

 

Parallel Implementation of the Social Forces Model ……………………..  63

M Quinn, R Metoyer, K Hunter-Zaworski

 

Session 2: Pedestrian Performance Data

Keynote speaker

Evacuation and Other Movement in Buildings: Some High-Rise
Evacuation Models, General Pedestrian Movement Models and Human
Performance Data Needs
………………………………………………. 75

J Pauls

 

Microscopic Pedestrian Traffic Data Collection and Analysis by Walking

Experiments: Behaviour at Bottlenecks …………………………………. 89

S P Hoogendoorn, W Daamen, P H L Bovy

  

Measuring Pedestrian Trajectories with Low Cost Infrared Detectors:

Preliminary Results …………………………………………………… 101

A Armitage, T D Binnie, J Kerridge, L Lei

 

Design of Pedestrian Facilities ………………………………………… 111

M Irzik

 

Qualitative Results from Pedestrian Laboratory Experiments …………… 121

W Daamen, S P Hoogendoorn

 

Session 3: Marine Evacuation Models

Keynote speaker

New IMO Regulations Regarding Ship Safety Assessment ………………. 133

J Rugg

 

Advanced Evacuation Analysis – Testing the Ground on Ships ………….. 147

D Vassalos, L Guarin, G C Vassalos, M Bole, H S Kim, J Majumder

 

Simulating Ship Evacuation under Fire Conditions ……………………... 159

E R Galea, P Lawrence, S Gwynne, L Filippidis, D Blackshields,

G Sharp, N Hurst, Z Wang, J Ewer

 

Simulex: Analysis and Changes for IMO Compliance …………………… 173

P Thompson, H Lindstrom, P-A Ohlsson, S Thompson

 

EvacuShip Analysis based on IMO Test Cases and other Benchmark

Comparisons ………………………………………………………….. 185

L J Carroll, L L Koss, A T Brumley

 

A Mesoscopic Method for Evacuation Simulation on Passenger Ships:

Models and Algorithms ………………………………………………… 197

M D Gangi, F Russo, A Vitetta

 

Session 4: Marine Evacuation Applications and Data Collection

Keynote speaker

Ship Evacuation Modelling …………………………………………….. 209

M Schreckenberg

 

Ship Evacuation Optimisation. Tools for Master and Designer Aid ……… 221

A Lσpez, F Pιrez

  

Comparative Case Studies of Passenger Ship Evacuation ………………. 233

J M Chertkoff

 

The Influence of Ship Motion Induced Lateral Acceleration on Walking

 Speed ………………………………………………………………… 245

P Crossland

 

Ship Evacuation Mobility Data ………………………………………… 257

L L Koss, A T Brumley

 

Behaviours of Pedestrian Group Overtaking Wheelchair User ………….. 267

K Miyazaki, H Matsukura, M Katuhara, K Yoshida, S Ota,

N Kiriya, O Miyata

 

Session 5: Building Evacuation Models

Keynote speaker

Building and Fire Safety Investigation of the World Trade Center

Disaster ………………………………………………………………. 279

W Grosshandler

 

Pedestrian Motion in Realistic Virtual Reality Environments:

Application to High-Rise Building Evacuation …………………………. 283

R Marinova, I Ourdev, V Stoilov, L Brinkworth, J H Gu

 

Validating the buildingEXODUS Evacuation Model using Data from an

Unannounced Trial Evacuation ………………………………………... 295

J Parke, S Gwynne, E R Galea, P Lawrence

 

Design Criteria Related to Orientation in Buildings during High Stress

Situations, Crowd Simulation Models and their Applications …………… 307

N Waldau, M Schreckenberg, P Gattermann

 

Simulating the Evacuation of Large Assembly Occupancies …………….. 319

V Schneider

 

Characteristics of the PedGo Software for Crowd Movement and Egress

Simulation …………………………………………………………….. 331

H Klόpfel, T Meyer-Kφnig

 

The Use of Evacuation Simulation, Fire Simulation and Experimental Fire

Data in Forensic Fire Analysis ………………………………………… 341

H Jiang, S Gwynne, E R Galea, P Lawrence, F Jia, H Ingason

 

Session 6: Building Evacuation Applications and Data Collection

Keynote speaker  

Behaviour and Movement Interactions in Emergencies and Data Needs for

Engineering Design …………………………………………………… 355

D Purser

 

Overview of Design Issues Relating to Racecourse Circulation …………. 371

D Brocklehurst

 

Development of Intelligent Agent for Evacuation Model ………………… 383

J H Park, H Kim, D Lee

 

Computer Modelling of Merging Pedestrian Traffic …………………….. 395

V O Shestopal

  

Poster Abstracts

 

A Pedestrian Simulation for Hiking in the Alps …………………………. 406

C Gloor, L Mauron, K Nagel

 

Walker Models by Adaptive Control ……………………………………. 407

S P Hoogendoorn

 

MeGa Project in Amsterdam …………………………………………… 408

S Korz

 

Behavior of Pedestrian Flow based on 2 Dimensional Optimal Velocity

Model …………………………………………………………………. 409

A Nakayama, Y Sugiyama

 

Foot Traffic Flows: Background for Modelling …………………………. 410

V Kholshevnikov, T Shields, D Samoshyn

 

Study on IMO Guidelines for Evacuation Analysis for Passenger Ships ….. 411

S Ota, K Yoshida, K Miyazaki

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