The second NACRE (New Aircraft
Concepts Research) Conference
1. PROJECT NACRE and the
NACRE is a 30-million Euros European R&T
project, partly funded by the European Commission within the Sixth Framework
Programme under Thematic Priority 4 Aeronautics and Space. The objective of the
research is to create, develop, validate and integrate breakthrough technologies
that will enable novel aircraft concept design to provide the aviation sector
with significant improvements in aircraft efficiency, environmental performance,
comfort and economics. The NACRE consortium gathers 36 organisations from 13
countries in Europe (including Russia).
The project was launched in April 2005 and is scheduled to run for four years.
The research work is divided into three multidisciplinary work packages:
I. Wing system & control surfaces
II. Powerplant system design & integration
III. Cabin system & fuselage.
The conference aims to engage with a broad audience, including members of the
wider Aeronautical, Scientific and Technology community to raise general
awareness about recent technological advances on future aircraft configurations.
Delegates will be able to share information on the drivers for research on
unconventional aircraft concepts and on the NACRE project achievements to date.
2. TECHNICAL PROGRAMME
(summary and abstract)
You can download a detailed technical programme
summary, the programme for the conference is:
Tuesday 8th July
18:00 – 21:00 Registration and Cocktail Reception.
Wednesday 9th July
08:00 – 08:30 Registration
08:30 – 08:45 Welcome address
Prof Ed Galea, Chair Local Organising Committee, FSEG University of Greenwich -
08:45 – 09:00 Conference Objectives
Dr Laurent Dala, Chair NAG, University of West England - UK
09:00 – 09:30 Keynote Address
Dr Joachim Szodruch, Co-Chair of ACARE, DLR - Germany
09:30 – 10:00 NACRE Highlights
Joao Frota, NACRE project coordinator, Airbus – France
Eric Maury, Stategy and Future Programmes, Airbus - France
10:00 – 10:30 Coffee break
10:30 – 12:30 Session 1
Chairman: Christiane Michaut
Aircraft Strategic Planning and Business Development, ONERA – France
10:30 – 11:00 Market Opportunities for Green Aviation Operations (TBC)
Philippe Jarry, Head of Strategic Marketing, Airbus – France
11:00 – 11:30 Airline Drivers for Future Aircraft Designs
Hal Calamvokis, Strategic Planning Manager, easyJet Airline Co. Ltd – UK
11:30 – 12:00 Novel Aircraft Concepts
João Frota, NACRE Project Coordinator, Airbus – France
12:00 – 12:30 An Innovative Evaluation Platform for New Aircraft Concepts
Peter Schmollgruber, Long Term Design & Systems Integration, ONERA – France
12:30 – 14:00 Lunch
14:00 – 16:00 Session 2
Chairman: Fernando Monge
Fluid Dynamics Branch Director, INTA – Spain
14:00 – 14:30 Unconventional Aircraft Configurations (TBC)
Ilan Kroo, Department of Aeronautics & Astronautics, Stanford University – USA
14:30 – 15.00 Novel Lifting Surfaces
Kevin Nicholls, Wing & Landing Gear Architect, Airbus – UK
15:00 – 15:30 Hybrid Layout Proposal for the High-Passenger Capacity Aircraft
Anatoly Bolsunovsky, TsAGI – Russia
15:30 – 16:00 Flight Test of the BWB X-48B (TBC)
Bob Liebeck, BWB Program Manager, Boeing Phantom Works – USA
16:00 – 16:30 Coffee break
16:30 – 18:00 Session 3
Chairman: Malcolm Smith
Technical Manager, ISVR Consulting, University of Southampton – UK
16:30 – 17:00 The Scope for Reducing the Environmental Impact of Air Travel
John Green, Chairman of Science & Technology Sub-Group, Greener by Design – UK
17:00 – 17:30 Novel Powerplant Installations
John Whurr, Future Programmes Engineering, Rolls Royce – UK
17:30 – 18:00 NACRE Wind Tunnel Test Campaign Dedicated to New Aircraft Concepts
Sebastien Aeberli, Acoustics Department, Snecma – France
19:30 -22:00 Conference Dinner in the “Painted Hall”
Thursday 10th July
08:00 – 08:30 Registration
08:30 – 10:00 Session 4
Chairman: Zdobyslaw Goraj
Warsaw University of Technology – Poland
08:30 – 09:00 Novel Fuselage Concepts
Lars Fiedler, Structure Design, Airbus – Germany
09:00 – 09:30 Improvement of Civil Airframes – Modern Trends and Directions
Georgy Zamula, Deputy Director Structures, TsAGI – Russia
09:30 – 10:00 Structural Concepts of Passenger Driven Aircraft (TBC)
Joerg Nickel, Institute of Composite Structures and Adaptive Systems, DLR –
10:00 – 10:30 Coffee break
10:30 – 12:00 Session 5
Chairman: Hans Lobentanzer
Head of Systems Engineering, EADS IW – Germany
10:30 – 11:00 Design of Innovative Cabin Interiors (TBC)
Werner Granzeier, Department of Automotive Engineering and Aircraft
University of Hamburg – Germany
11:00 – 11:30 Boeing and Cranfield University BWB Airplane Egress Study
Bruce Wallace, Evacuation Systems Engineering, Boeing – USA
11:30 – 12:00 Fire and Evacuation analysis in BWB aircraft configurations:
Computer Simulations and a Large-Scale Experimental Study.
Prof Ed Galea, Director Fire Safety Engineering Group, University of Greenwich –
12:00 – 12:30 Conference Wrap-up
with Liam Breslin, Head of DG RTD Aeronautics Unit, European Commission –
1d An Innovative Evaluation Platform for New Aircraft Concepts
Peter Schmollgruber, ONERA – France
Aerospace industrials have always developed new airframes and new engines to
meet the airline companies demands in terms of passenger capabilities, mission
performance and appealing return on investment values. However, in the last
decade, additional constraints in term of noise, emissions and fuel consumption
forced manufacturers to explore unconventional concepts for next generation air
vehicles. Since some of these designs are radically different, current tools and
methods, based on a large historical database of numerical simulations,
experiments and flight tests are now reaching the boundaries of their
utilization envelope with no option for extrapolations without a large amount of
For these reasons, the European project NACRE (New Aircraft Concept REsearch) –
a project regrouping thirty-six partners managed by Airbus and half financed by
the European Commission - initiated the study of an Innovative Evaluation
Platform (IEP). The objective of this flying test platform is to offer engineers
and specialists an additional test facility to help in the early design phases
of new aeronautical systems in six areas of interest: high-lift devices, flight
dynamics, recovery from hazardous conditions, noise assessment, wake vortices
and laminar flow.
The first phase of this project (Subtask T141) was the assessment and the
feasibility analysis of such a system. During this initial step, studies
performed by the research team indicate that the IEP is a scientific answer to
both the limitations of current existing methods and the need for a new test
platform. Completed by an economical and operational evaluation, T141 concludes
that an IEP integrating the concept of modularity for the flying platform offers
a technical gain and some profitability in comparison to today’s experimental
facilities under the condition of meeting stringent requirements.
Given this conclusion, the consortium decided to design and manufacture an IEP
defined as follow:
“The IEP must be a competitive test facility under the form of an Unmanned
Flying Platform to be designed and manufactured within NACRE T142 enabling:
- the stability and control parameters identification
- the noise assessment
- the analysis of different recovery procedures in the case of Hazardous Flight
at a conceptual design level for different aircraft concepts to be tested in
Because of the complex nature of this system (it is a test facility that flies),
the second phase of the project started with an accurate requirement analysis to
be sure to capture all the specific aspects of the aerial vehicle and to
integrate them in the design. This analysis, based on the decomposition of the
flight procedures and the objectives of the IEP generates two matrices that set
the way for the design process. During the conceptual design, two distinct rear
fuselage configurations have been selected as well as the basic characteristics
of the flying platform. From there, the preliminary and detail design and the
manufacturing process are carried out carefully considering all design
requirement as well as the other non technical constraints of the project.
Currently in the last phases of the IEP manufacturing, all efforts are
concentrated on finalizing all the details to be ready for the initial flight
trials in Fall 2008.
2b NACRE WP2 – Novel Lifting Surfaces
Kevin Nicholls, Airbus UK
The objective of the Novel Lifting Surfaces work package within the NACRE
project was to investigate and develop novel wing and empennage integrated
concepts. The aim was to contribute to a step change in the affordability and
environmental impact of civil aircraft. The studies were essentially split into
3 tasks, each integrating multi-disciplinary work, addressing potential concept
show stoppers and highlighting promising avenues for further investigation.
The advanced wing task investigated a high aspect ratio low sweep wing concept
plus a forward swept wing concept with natural laminar flow. Both of these
concepts have the aim of improving the environmental impact of aircraft. A
manufacture driven wing is also being studied with the aim of minimizing costs.
The flying wing task builds on the extensive work within previous research
projects such as VELA. It addressed the major issues with the concept including
cabin arrangement and evacuation, the structural design and the controllability.
The innovative empennage task investigated double-hinged control concepts with
the aim of reducing the wetted area of the empennage. There are also initial
studies into the use of morphing to optimise the empennage for the different
requirements of the low speed and high-speed flight conditions.
The paper will provide a broad outline of the work carried out within the
project and a summary of the main results from the first 3 years of the project.
The component design solutions plus the results of the various trade studies
have been fed back to the overall aircraft design work package to integrate the
results at aircraft level.
2c Hybrid Layout Proposal for the High Passenger Capacity Aircraft
L. Bolsunovsky, N. P. Buzoverya, I. L. Chernyshev, B. L. Gurevich and E. B.
Central Aero-hydrodynamic Institute (TsAGI) – Russia
Unconventional layouts of the flying vehicles are searched for continuously in
the aviation community with the aim to meet the challenges of a new century in
efficiency, public acceptability and environmental impact. Flying wing (FW) is
one of the most promising concepts, although the problem of the small internal
volume prevents the use of the pure FW in favour of the blended-wing-body (BWB).
TsAGI has accumulated a large volume of experience with FW concept due to the
participation in ISTC grant and more recent European NACRE program.
Another alternative configuration - twin fuselage airliner has an advantage that
the maximum wing bending moment is reduced significantly compared to the
classical layout. Promising results have been obtained during studies on this
layout, but the fears exist that besides some technical problems it will lack
passenger appeal. Thus, both schemes have their own pros and cons.
In this article the new unconventional layout of the transport aircraft is
proposed, namely the hybrid of both mentioned schemes: flying wing and twin
fuselage configuration (Fig.1). Positive and negative aspects of the layout are
analyzed. In authors opinion the hybrid configuration poses a set of advantages
of both predecessors while avoiding the major drawbacks. It competes
successfully with the classic configuration in aerodynamics, structural weight
and community noise level. In-depth research combined with multi-disciplinary
studies is needed to more precise evaluation of the whole potential of the
Figure 1: The
hybrid layout between flying wing and twin fuselage configurations
3a The Scope for Reducing the Environmental Impact of Air Travel
J. E. Green, Greener by Design Science and Technology Sub Group – UK
In the coming century, the impact of air travel on the environment will become
an increasingly powerful influence on aircraft design. Unless the impact per
passenger kilometre can be reduced substantially relative to today’s levels,
environmental factors will increasingly limit the expansion of air travel and
the social benefits that it brings. The three main impacts are noise, air
pollution around airports and changes to atmospheric composition and climate as
a result of aircraft emissions at altitude. Concentrating on climate change, the
lecture will review the technological, design and operational possibilities for
reducing these impacts. Taken together, these hold out the prospect that, if the
engineering community, governments and the operating industry give the subject
sufficient priority, the improved environmental performance of air transport
might more than offset the effect of air traffic growth over the next 50 years.
There is, moreover, a prospect of continuing this trend into the second half of
the century provided an alternative, carbon-neutral fuel becomes generally
3c NACRE Wind Tunnel Test Campaign Dedicated to New Aircraft Concepts Study
Sébastien Aeberli, Acoustic Department, Snecma – France
In the frame of NACRE European research project, a wind tunnel test campaign was
conducted in order to assess the noise shielding effect due to unconventional
engine installations. This test campaign was in the continuity of the campaign
on shielding effect conducted during the ROSAS European project and add some
significant different configurations. A BPR9 (1/9th scale) nozzle with and
without chevron was installed in the ONERA CEPrA19 anechoic wind tunnel with a
2D high lift wing. Over Wing Nacelle and Rear Fan Nacelle engine installation
were studied with this hardware.
The first part of the campaign was dedicated to Jet noise in isolated
configuration with pylon and no wing and allowed to study the impact of the
pylon on acoustic far field. The second part was dedicated to Jet noise
shielding obtained by unconventional engine installations and allowed also to
study the impact of installation on chevron effect.
The NACRE Jet noise campaign allowed to gather a significant database on noise
installation effect complementary to the ROSAS database. A number of generating
conditions were indeed achieved in static and in flight conditions. As expected,
significant noise attenuation was obtained by shielding effect. Other secondary
installation effects (due to pylon or chevron for example) were also studied.
This paper presents the NACRE Jet noise experiment, results and preliminary
analysis on acoustic shielding.
4b Improvement of Civil Airframes – Modern Trends and Directions
G. Zamula and A. Shanygin, Central Aerohydrodynamic Institute (TsAGI) – Russia
Progress in civil aircraft structures which is aimed at reaching higher levels
of safety, environmental compatibility, reliability, and cost effectiveness is
only possible if experts persistently search for new solutions in areas of
developing new design methods, preparing advanced materials, formulating novel
manufacturing processes, etc. The report outlines the TsAGI-gained experience of
introducing new high-strength metallic and composite materials in the civil
aircraft structures, as well as results of optimizing airframes of advanced
airliners subject to static and fatigue strength constraints.
4c Structural Concepts of Passenger Driven Aircraft
Jörg Nickel, DLR – Germany
Contrary to the common procedure of designing the fuselage structure first and
then integrating the cabin, the Passenger Driven Aircraft (PDA) Concept is
tracking an innovative inside-out approach. That means, with the focus on the
passengers’ needs the cabin layout given by the “H-Cylinder”, “V-Cylinder”, and
“V-Lens” designs marks the starting point of the structural fuselage design.
Based on these PDA cabin layouts suitable structural fuselage concepts have been
developed with the aim of creating optimal solutions under the given
Options for varying the cross section shapes were identified with respect to
parameter coupling with the aerodynamic design. For an easy comparability and as
a common basis of design concerning structural (as well as aerodynamic) aspects,
parametric CAD models were used. The parametric models address the aero-driven
single bubble / elliptical shape and structure-driven quadruple bubble
configurations. Based on the parametric CAD models each of the partners
developed and adapted their solutions to serve as an input for the Joint
Probabilistic Decision Making (JPDM) process.
Since only two configurations could be further tracked, “H-Cylinder” and
“V-Cylinder” layouts were the most interesting variants for reasons of
significance. These remaining configurations were examined in terms of weight as
a characteristic assessment parameter. Currently the structural concepts are
being further developed and optimised using the Finite Element Method (FEM).
The presentation shows the results of the development and investigation of
structural concepts and solutions that are needed in order to protect the
promising cabin arrangements from the forces and environment of flight.
5b Boeing and Cranfield University BWB Airplane Egress Study
Bruce Wallace, Boeing – USA
A Boeing Blended Wing Body (BWB) airplane evacuation study was conducted in 2001
in conjunction with Cranfield University. The testing, conducted at Cranfield,
provided data and information regarding evacuation characteristics of a large
single deck cabin with more than two aisles, which differs from our conventional
single and dual aisle airplanes and is an alternative arrangement to the two
deck solution for very large aircraft.
Testing conducted in 2001 provided information on main aisle exit passageway
flow rates. Testing was designed to test the effects of various main aisle and
exit passageway widths on passenger flow rates to Type A exits. The results of
the 2001 studies provided information on interior arrangement options with
respect to aisle and exit location resulting in potential increase in passenger
capacity for a given floor space. Previous predicted capacity was limited based
on conventional tube style evacuation characteristics.
5c Fire and Evacuation Analysis in BWB Aircraft Configurations: Computer
Simulations and a Large-Scale Experimental Study
Edwin Galea, Lazaros Filippidis, Zhaozhi Wang, and John Ewer, University of
Greenwich – UK
How long does would it take to evacuate a Blended Wing Body (BWB) aircraft with
around 1000 passengers and crew? How long would it take an external post-crash
fire to develop non-survivable conditions within the cabin of a BWB aircraft? Is
it possible for all the passengers to safely evacuate from a BWB cabin subjected
to a post-crash fire? Is the FAR/JAR 25.803 full-scale evacuation certification
criteria of 90 seconds relevant to BWB aircraft? These questions will be
explored in this paper through computer simulation. As part of project NACRE,
the airEXODUS evacuation model has been used to explore evacuation issues
associated with BWB aircraft. To investigate the fire issues a series of CFD
fire simulations using the University of Greenwich SMARTFIRE software were
conducted in the NACRE BWB aircraft configuration. The fire and evacuation
simulations were then coupled to investigate how the evacuation would proceed
under the conditions produced by a post-crash fire. The impact of heat, smoke
and toxic fire gases on the evacuating population was assessed. In conjunction
with this work, a large-scale evacuation experiment was conducted in February
2008 to verify evacuation model predictions. This presentation will review the
modelling work and present some results from the evacuation experiments.
3. REGISTRATION FEE AND
The cost of the conference is €350 with a
discounted rate of €250 for students. Conference fees include, Cocktail
Reception (8 July), Attendance of conference (9 July 08:00 to 10 July 12:30),
Conference proceedings, Conference Dinner (9 July), Lunch (9 July).
Accommodation is available at the MacMillan student Halls for £24 per night
excluding breakfast. Hotels are also available in the area, see survival pack
Please download the conference registration form
For further details and to register contact: (i)
4. SURVIVAL PACK
A survival pack describing the conference venue,
the location, travel information, accommodation and conference fees is available
5. TRAVEL INFORMATION
A summary of travel information may be found
here. Information concerning travel can also be found in the survival pack (see
London City Airport:
This is the closest airport to the University campus, via the
Docklands Light Railway (DLR). From the airport, take the DLR towards Bank,
Change at Poplar for Cutty Sark. Coming out of the station, take left
exit. The entrance to the University can be seen right ahead (approx. 20 min.).
Alternatively you can call a minicab (Greenwich Car Hire, Tel. +44 (0)20 8858
6661, charges around £14 for the journey). Black taxis are more expensive.
The airport is on the London Underground, Piccadilly Line. A
service runs every 5-10 min. into Central London. Take underground to Charing
Cross or London Bridge then a train to Greenwich or Maze
Hill from either of these railway stations (approx. 1h50). Alternatively,
take underground to Canary Wharf via Piccadilly and Jubilee lines
(changing at Green Park) then change to Docklands Light Railway (DLR) to
Cutty Sark. Takes roughly the same time (1h50), but Cutty Sark is
closest station to UoG.
Gatwick Airport has its own railway station. Take the “Thameslink”
train to London Bridge (approx. 30 min.) and change at London Bridge for
Greenwich or Maze Hill (another 15-20 min.).
From Central London By Tube
The nearest Tube station to the university campus is North
Greenwich. From that station take a 188 Bus to reach the campus. A better
option is to use the DLR (see below).
By Docklands Light Railway (DLR)
Direct DLR services run from Bank, Canary Wharf & Lewisham to Cutty Sark
Station which is the nearest to the Greenwich campus (just 2 min.
Charing Cross, Cannon Street, Waterloo East & London Bridge all offer
direct services (every 10 min. or every few minutes during rush hour) to
Greenwich Station on the Dartford/Gravesend via Greenwich and woolwich line. If
you are travelling from Kent, alight at Maze Hill.
The A2 and the A20 provide access to Greenwich. The Blackwall Tunnel links
Greenwich with the northern side of the Thames. However, due to the high levels
of traffic in Greenwich and the very strict parking regulations in the area,
visitors are advised to use public transport whenever possible.
You can travel cheaper after 9:30am, using a “Travel Card”. This card allows you
to travel in London on trains, buses, underground and DLR for the entire day.
Make sure however that you buy the correct card to cover the zones you are
travelling in. Ask when you buy it at the station.
Black taxis are expensive. It is best to book a minicab. There is one minicab
firm close to the University: Greenwich Car Hire, Tel. +44 (0)20 8858 6661.
For more useful tips on London travel, go to
Other useful links:
Plan your train journey:
6.1) Conference group
photographs, 9 July 2008
6.2) NACRE Model Aircraft
6.3) Opening Reception, 8 July 2008
6.4) Day 1 Speakers, 9 July 2008
6.5) Conference dinner - Painted Hall 9
6.6) Day 2 Speakers, 10 July 2008